Generalized anxiety disorder

Psychological disorders / Category / Emile Du Toit / May 9th 2014

What is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?

GAD is a psychological disorder characterized by excessive or disproportionate anxiety about several aspects of life, such as work, social relationships, or financial matters.

People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) go through the day filled with exaggerated worry and tension, even though there is little or nothing to provoke it. They anticipate disaster and are overly concerned about health issues, money, family problems or difficulties at work. Sometimes just the thought of getting through the day produces anxiety.

Diagnosing generalized anxiety disorder

GAD is diagnosed when a person worries excessively about a variety of everyday problems for at least 6 months. People with GAD can’t seem to get rid of their concerns, even though they usually realise that their anxiety is more intense than the situation warrants. They can’t relax, startle easily, and have difficulty concentrating. Often they have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep.

Physical symptoms of GAD

Physical symptoms that often accompany generalized anxiety include of the following:

  • muscle tension,
  • headaches,
  • twitching,
  • irritability,
  • sweating,
  • fatigue,
  • muscle aches,
  • difficulty swallowing,
  • trembling,
  • nausea,
  • lightheadedness,
  • hot flushes,
  • feeling out of breath, and
  • frequent urination.

  • Who is affected by GAD?

    GAD affects twice as many women as men. The disorder develops gradually and can begin at any point in the life cycle, although the years of highest risk are between childhood and middle age. There is evidence that genes play a modest role in GAD.

    Level of functional impairment for GAD sufferers

    When their anxiety level is mild, people with GAD can function socially and hold down a job. Although they don’t necessarily avoid certain situations as a result of their disorder, people with GAD can have difficulty carrying out the simplest daily activities if their anxiety is severe.

    Co-morbidity with GAD

    Other anxiety disorders, depression, or substance abuse often accompany GAD, which rarely occurs alone.

    Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder

    GAD is commonly treated with medication or cognitive-behavioural therapy, but co-occurring conditions must also be treated using the appropriate therapies.

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